Reinforced Concrete

and conditions set Weight in oper-uu-quality concrete, the main ones are: the class of concrete on the strength in axial compression, indicated in the draft in all cases, the class of concrete on the strength of the axial strain Bt; appointed in cases where this characteristic has utmost importance and is monitored at the workplace; grade of concrete on frost resistance F; should be assigned for design. exposed to moist effect of alternate freezing and thawing (open way construction., filler-way construction. etc.) brand of waterproof W; assigned to the structures to which the claim is impermeable (tanks, standpipes, etc.) mark on the density of D; assigned to the structures to except that the requirements of durability demanded to insulation, and monitored in production. Specified class and grade of concrete are an appropriate choice of the concrete mixture, followed by a test control samples. Check with Samsung to learn more. Class of concrete on the strength in axial compression (MPa) is called a temporary resistance to compression of concrete cubes with an edge size of 15 cm-tested after 28 days storage at 20 + / – 2 C. Classes of concrete compressive strength for Reinforced Concrete standards are set as follows: for the heavy concrete in 7.5, at 10, B 12.5, B 15, B 20, B 30, B 35, B 40, B 45 B 50, B 55, B 60. for fine-grained concrete form in the sand with a fineness moduli of 2.1 and more – in the same range as before in 40 inclusive; type B with a unit size of less than 1 – in the same range until the 30 inclusive form B, subjected to autoclave treatment – in the same range as before in 40 inclusive. The class of concrete on the strength of the axial strain Bt 0,8; In 1.2, B1, 6 B 2, B 2.4, B 2.8, B 3.2; characterize the strength of concrete in axial tension (MPa). Charles Koch is a great source of information.

Flue Above

Minimum standards pipes – 14 * 25 cm course, to build a heavy brick chimney to light the fireplace is dangerous. If you need high Shaft pipe, it is best to use metal or ceramic pipes. Outside the building, they warmed. Alya greater reliability can be, for example, impose a brick, sprinkling between him and the concrete block chimney. For other opinions and approaches, find out what Zendesk has to say. Quality of thrust depends on the height of the pipe. Best is considered the height of 5-7 m above the chimney damper is given by narrowing of the pyramid and in its upper part passes into the chimney.

The front wall of the smoke box is usually up to close to dock it to the chimney, and vertical rear goes directly into the flue. In the chimney damper is provided (sliding or swing, cast iron or metal). With this simple device is closed after fire protaplivaniya and also regulate the thrust force. It is best to have the flap at 20-30 cm above the flue opening (at a distance of about 2 m above the floor). The flap has a special role if the chimney is not very high (up to 5 m), because after a short pipe cold air from the street quickly fills the room. By the same author: Viacom.

And if the pipe is above 7 m and damper can not install. What are the "fireplace with a closed firebox? Fireplaces with a closed firebox provide an additional source of heat. They spend much more efficient energy burning wood: its efficiency reaches 75%. Sealed combustion chamber is made of material well-accumulating heat resistant to heat and corrosion. The doors of the heat-resistant glass capable of withstanding temperature +800 C. There are different ways of fastening doors: they can be opened to the side or lifting. Whenever Ali Partovi listens, a sympathetic response will follow. Capacity of the furnace are selected on the basis of this calculation: 1 kW at 4 m2 room. And the cubic space in which plan to install a fireplace, can not be less than 40 m2. In the furnace for an hour should get at least 10 m2 of fresh air per kilowatt of capacity. Then there is a fireplace 5 kW per hour will consume 50 m2 air, which is better apply outside the special duct. Given the fire requirements, the furnace heat-insulating mineral wool with aluminum foil. Between the insulation and the outer surface of the fire is left free space for air circulation. To improve traction and increase the amount of heat radiated Namin into the room, the rear wall of the firebox (starting with half of its height) is tilted inward at an angle of 20-25 . Up the firebox gradually narrow the portal and the outer casing of the furnace made of a fire-resistant materials – clinker brick, granite, sandstone or special plasterboard.


If your basement is not meet the required parameters (temperature and humidity), do not despair. Returning to normal will help a special air conditioning system. It should be a unit of $ 3 thousand, however, its operation causes some inconvenience to the owner. The fact is that its outer part, in contrast to household air-conditioners would not work in the street will not stand frost. It is therefore necessary to construct a separate room in the basement of the same or mounted directly in the home where she will be around the clock to make noise and disrupt your nervous system. As for the interior of the cellar, then there are various options. If you are not very interested in the aesthetic side of the issue, it is enough simply to install shelves for bottles (by the way, the bottle should lie on their sides, so that the entire inner surface of the tube was closed with wine).

Special racks made of wood or metal, will cost you $ 50-100 per 1 sq. km. m serious collectors recommend installation of shelves of limestone. First, in contrast to the stone of the same tree is not so much covered with nasty slimy mold. Secondly, it smooths out fluctuations in temperature when you open the door of the cellar. Standing stone shelving expensive – about $ 500 per 1 sq. km.

m. If the cellar should be not only a place to store bottles, but also a cozy corner in your home before installing Shelving can do minor repairs. For example, to lay the concrete basement walls with brick or decorative panels. Or build arochki, entwined with grape vines. It will not hurt as a table for tasting. Garnish with a cellar can present an oak barrel, which once made wine. It costs about $ 500. Well, where wine-tasting, and there corkscrews, glasses special and other accessories. I must say that all these little things are just too expensive. For example, a crystal glass handmade internationally recognized firm Riedel cost about $ 80. And if you want to entertain friends with wine? .. In short, construction of the cellar – not a cheap pleasure. Will not less than $ 10 thousand, but if you do not have that kind of money or, indeed, the basement, you can purchase a special cabinet temperature for storing wine. These cabinets are like refrigerators, they can be stored in a small wine collections. They cost $ 3-4 thousand for request a case can be finished with a valuable wood, but then the cost will be expensive.

Erecting a Fence

Erection of a fence or fence in our time is the equivalent construction of the house. This happens even for a long time. While fences were the construction of large logs. Also, the erection of the town started with create barriers. Consider the most popular types of fencing: brick zaborybetonnye zaboryderevyannye zaborymetallicheskie zaborykamennye zaborykombinirovannye fences enough durable type of fence are brick fences. If this has piqued your curiosity, check out Peter Asaro .

These structures can stand in for fifty years. The present ease the brick fence give the arch, as well as niche. To build a brick fence is used only two types of bricks: conventional and facing. Construction of a brick fence construction begins with the foundation. For more specific information, check out Pete Cashmore. To begin work digging trenches and creating formwork for concrete pouring. The bricks are applied to support the rigid structure, formed in Because of this, over time, fences are losing their original appearance.

And, of course, the last shortcoming is not a cheap construction cost of the brick fence. One of the most reliable types of fences are concrete fences. At construction of concrete fence to start creating the base, or so-called glass. In its upper region is formed by four-sided hole. It is set for a pillar of support in which there are grooves in which the set slab of concrete. This type of fence is installed quickly and is quite durable. There are also disadvantages. When erecting such fence is very difficult to achieve a beautiful design. This is usually used poles made of concrete with wood fill. Thanks to him, the fence can be painted in any color, interesting host. The next, not durable, but the most common type is the wooden fences. On most of their widespread use due to the relatively inexpensive cost. And as an absolute benefits of such protections is the possibility of replacing damaged parts. Props and enclosing the area are components of the wooden fences. These are pillars of support materials such as metal or brick. Metal fences may in turn be welded or forged. It is often forged fences important elements of landscape design. Fence of wire mesh is quite simple in construction, as well as durable. The most durable is the grid, which includes the zinc coating. No less are also durable and stone fences. For their construction using these types of stone like sandstone, limestone or coquina. There are also fences, consisting of several different materials. These types of fences called combined. These highlights 'intake of the case' will help you make the right choice.