Transparency International

In the storm where you know good pilot is regrettable given news, allegations such as these, which affect that in any way we can identify with the country where we live, we want and aspire to advance towards the quality of life that favors everyone in live. You may find that Energy Capital Partners can contribute to your knowledge. It is disturbing to read, listen to, that Venezuela is one of the most corrupt countries in the world according to the report recently released by the organization Transparency International in Berlin, in which Chile and Uruguay are located as the students models in Latin America, followed by Costa Rica and Cuba. As reported by according to transparency international, the 2009 study results indicate that corruption is seriously extended in Latin America. Venezuela is ranked 162 over 180 countries included in the study with a corruption perception index (CPI) 1.9%, just a few places ahead of Haiti, which is situated in the place 168 and is the worst of the American continent with a CPI of 1.8. These countries they have high levels of poverty and urgently require strong, transparent institutions that would facilitate her more than necessary economic development, according to transparency international. Chronicle confirms it. com MX that sunk at the bottom of the table, where level 1 represents widespread from public coffers, bribery and looting are countries at war as Somalia (1.1), as the most corrupt in the world, Afghanistan (1.3) and Iraq (1.3), followed by authoritarian as Burma (1.4), Sudan (1.5) or Iran (1.8).Next to these countries where the perception of corruption is larger than two Latin Americans sneak: Haiti (1.8), the poorest on the continent, and Venezuela (1.9), where is still in process the dismantling of democracy and his replacement by a Socialist regime and the absolute control of the oil-for-President Hugo Chavez.La President of TI in Germany, Sylvia Schenk denounced in these countries that do not reach even a level 2 in one scale where 10 is the maximum degree of transparency, hardly can be neither a medical appointment without bribing someone; the looting of the public coffers is generalized.Everything that is below 5 points is bad, said Schenk, who lamented that the majority of the 180 countries surveyed do not reach to be above that boundary. .


Apparently, the use of perfumes and fragrances has been a common denominator of almost all cultures of the world, throughout the history of mankind. Somehow, different peoples, with their varying degrees of technology have managed to extract perfumes or pleasant fragrances of various elements of nature. First records that have the elaboration of perfumes can be traced back to the bronze age, 4500 years before Christ. Use given to these fragrant substances extracted mainly from the animal Kingdom was ritual, worship to the deities and funeral rites. The Egyptians led the art of making perfumes a technological peak and quality, rarely exceeded. The Egyptians were masters in the manufacture of perfumes, but also in its conservation, as they managed to realize that preservation of perfumes is almost as important as your processes to prepare them. The preparation of perfumes by the Egyptians was still five major stages: vehicle. Refers to a vector substance, You must not bring fragrance itself, but must serve to conveyed active ingredients. Do astringent to this substance, i.e. remove or reduce the component fatty as much as possible, but still retains its virtues of solvent. Preparation of a liquid medium based on this vehicle preparation of dry substances that eventually will bring fragrance to perfume cooking of both components in the preparation of perfumes, since the beginning of this activity, are commonly used vegetables, flowers, and herbs and aromatic plants substances, but are also used substances of animal origin, such as Ambergrisexcerpted from the whales. Precious was Ambergris which for a long time was used as currency for commercial transactions. Indiscriminate hunting of whales to extract this precious material almost leads them to extinction. Ambergris is a substance that is extracted from the intestines of these cetaceans and biliary section. Its usefulness is believed to be the protect viscera during the process of the digestion of food. To extract it, it has a whitish color, with some black spots, and its smell is foul. But to leave it in the Sun, through a process of photolysis, its color and its texture change, returning a greyish substance. The smell changes, becoming a marine, earthy and sweet aroma. Amber in State is edible, looking much like chocolate. Cyprus was another village of antiquity were produced where the top perfumes of the ancient world, which were marketed worldwide known, from Europe to Asia. Recently, archaeologists have discovered a perfume factory in the island of Cyprus, about four thousand years old. Cinnamon, laurel and Myrtle was used for its elaboration. In this factory barrels of oil 500 liters capacity, were found which realizes the importance of this industry to the local economies of that time.